The title of this work indicates that it concerns a certain Daniel Payne and some of his descendents, but with the inclusion of an abundance of collateral ancestors it is far more than that. It touches on, perhaps in a miniscule way, the names and a portion of the lives of a great number of families that contributed to the many generations which have constituted our family throughout the centuries - including the present generation.
The simple truth is that we know practically nothing about the personal lives of any of our ancestors except for the last few generations and there are holidays in what we know of them. For example, the emigration of our ancestors to America, the early Pilgrims, Puritans and Cavaliers, to establish the English colonies was an event that had rarely been witnessed in the previous history of the world. Although the numbers that are discussed herein are not so impressive today, where we count the world population in the billions, twenty five thousand or more people leaving the land of their birth in the early seventeenth century, to start anew in a far and unknown land, was an event of great magnitude.
While the research that I have been able to do has been rather insignificant in comparison to all that has been written and available to research, prior to Winthrop on the Arbella, in 1630, not one personal account of the trials and tribulations encountered in the daily ship board routine of the Pilgrims, how they managed to perform the simple necessities of life, living on board a vessel, such as preparing food, sleeping, personal hygiene, has been found. Such a personal account would be invaluable, but if one was written, it has eluded historians and genealogists to this day.
These voyages by the Pilgrims were under taken in vessels, sometimes as small as 60-70 feet in length and often in the dead of winter. From personal experience, I can vouch that theNorth Atlanticcan be a most inhospitable place even if one is on a major man of war or a stately cruise ship. We know from the ship’s records and manifests that death took its toll, for causes ranging from accidents to diseases, such as small pox, to scurvy.
Up until the late fifteenth century most sea voyages were of rather short duration, that is, mostly around northernEuropeand in theMediterranean Sea. Most of the sea faring vessels at the time the great emigration toAmericabegan, carried either fishermen, traders making short voyages in theNorth SeaorMediterraneanor ships of the various navies. They simply had no knowledge of the requirement to have a balanced diet to see them safely through a voyage at sea that could last up to three months. Thus scorbutic starvation, or scurvy, early on was the main scourge of our Pilgrim ancestors.
The effects of scurvy, while not well understood, were not unknown at the time of the great emigration, but it was people like Drake, Raleigh, Magellan and others that made voyages to circumnavigate the globe, who were familiar with scurvy and methods to help control it. Unfortunately there was little transfer and documentation of this knowledge in the beginning of the great emigration. Besides, those early explorers were generally voyaging in tropical climes and were able to make frequent stops to replenish their potable water and find fresh provisions.
That fortuitous happenstance of having islands as stepping stones, affording fresh water and fruit and vegetables along the route, did not exist for our ancestors traversing theNorth Atlanticin all seasons of the year. One half of the passengers on the Mayflower died from Scurvy. Our early ancestors were fast learners, however, and ten years later, at the time of the Winthrop Fleet arrival in 1630, their knowledge of dietetics had vastly improved. Even so, some two hundred of theWinthropgroup out of a total of seven hundred perished from all causes, and scurvy was probably the primary cause even though the Winthrop Fleet arrived in the summer, not the dead of winter. We do not claim any ancestors from the Mayflower, but as you follow the various ancestors given in the text, you will find that many of our ancestral family members are found in the 1620’s and 1630’s, immigrants toVirginiaand toNew England, or upperVirginiaas it was then considered. Most surely their transport was not a walk in the park and the tasks before them were formidable, to say the least. It does a great disservice to them to compare their accomplishments in any way to the millions of illegal immigrants now found in our society, whose rallying cry, to justify breaking our laws, along with their liberal sympathizers, is “all Americans are immigrants.” The stupidity of such an assertion should be readily apparent as all people everywhere with the possible exception of Adam and Eve, were emigrants, including the American Indians.
It is to those early, intrepid ancestors whose vision, great sacrifice and hard work contributed so much to the founding and development of America and to the memory of my father and mother,Clydeand Belva Mitchell Payne, that this work is dedicated.
David Hume, in his "History of England", observed that there is a “curiosity entertained by all civilized peoples, of inquiring into the exploits and adventures of those forebears who helped to establish and define their nations.” While this curiosity is exhibited by nations, the same can be said in the case of individuals, as all of us have, or should have, a lively and personal interest in the history of our lineage and of those whose blood and characteristics we have inherited.
As is the case with many others, I have long entertained considerable curiosity concerning my ancestors. Where did they come from, what factors caused them to make this radical change in their lives and whom did they leave behind? A number of our cousins have collected, over the years, considerable data in some cases and bits and pieces in others, of our family's background and history. Cousin Susie Simms, daughter of Jesse G. Payne, brother of g.f.Francis Marion Payne, collected an important amount of data, some of which she gave to brother Donald M. Payne and his wife, Wilma. She gave some papers to Cousin Marjorie Pauline (Hill) Hoelzel, as well. Cousin Susie may have had additional papers, but efforts of Cousin Marjorie to obtain them were to no avail. Cousin Marjorie, a member of the Society, “Daughters of the American Revolution,” a war of which all members of our family could be either "Sons or Daughters", has uncovered much valuable information through the D.A.R., a most worthy organization. The Revolutionary War data for our family concerns primarily maternal lines as our direct line paternal Payne’s were not of an age to serve in that noble conflict. There is a bit of an exception in regard to the American Civil War as the records show that 1812 Payne’s served with the Confederates and 1612 for the Union Forces. Many being some of our cousins, notably three sons of our uncle Moses Payne were very much involved with that conflict; one brother, Moses, with the Union and two brothers, Jacob Upshur and Andrew Miller Payne, with the Confederates. Substantial coverage of these cousins is contained in Chapter IV.
Considering that we are the product of maternal ancestors as well as paternal, our maternal lines, as it is possible to identify, are covered in this work. Fortunately and particularly as pertains to our maternal ancestors, several books and many articles have been written concerning them. Sadly, however, I have found no published material concerning our paternal Payne ancestors. Some of the maternal line books that have proved to be most helpful include:
"The Paine Family Records, a Journal of Genealogical and Biographical Information respecting the American Families of Payne, Paine, Payn, etc.," by Dr. H.D. Paine, M.D.; "Thomas Payne ofSalemand his Descendants", by Nathanial Emmons Paine, M.D. These books and others referenced herein cannot be praised too highly as they have been invaluable in providing excellent historical background of the origin of the name and also genealogical information on Thomas Payne, a maternal emigrant ancestor and for Philemon Dickerson and his wife Mary Payne and their family; “Thomas Payne of Salem and his Descendants, An Enlargement of the Southold Branch of the Paine Family", by Horace Marshfield Paine, M.D.; "Robert Coe, Puritan, His Ancestors and Descendants", by J. Gardner Bartlett; "The Boston Family of Maryland", by Matthew M. Wise and several more, which are referenced in the text where appropriate. Also, while there is no proof of a connection that I have found linking our family with the Ipswich Branch, their family history and the history of Payne’s, Paine’s in general are set forth in the "Paine Genealogy, Ipswich Branch", written by Albert W. Paine, in 1881. The cover of this last referenced book is graced with a Payne family crest, which the author believed is descended from the crest of Hugh de Payen, the Crusader. Many, many more genealogy texts, articles, magazines, etc., have been utilized in compiling the chapters which comprise the document "Daniel Payne of Accomacke and Some of His Descendants.” Credit for material extracted from those sources is given at the time in the particular case that such use was made.
Over the years, my files grew rather sparingly until Cousin Marjorie talked me into subscribing to the "Genealogical Helper", and in the process, take advantage of a free ad with the subscription. Unable to pass up such largess, I subscribed to the paper and inserted a query concerning the descendants of William Payne, b.c.1606, England. I received nothing concerning William, but I now have in my files, literally hundreds of letters from people who are searching for Payne ancestors. Elsden Smith, in his book "American Surnames", states that in 1964, the name Payne ranked 164th in numbers in the United States. I have seen other estimates, the latest putting the name at 167th, largely because of the great influx of people whose names end in an a or z, such as Garcia, Rodriguez, Sanchez, etc, and sadly, that source shows no sign of abating. The name is an ancient one, dating back to the time that surnames were first used and if the ancestors and others who have carried the Payne name could be counted, the number would surely be in the tens of millions. Such is the challenge of genealogy.
Perhaps it was a mistake to direct the query toward William Payne, as he is not a confirmed ancestor. Daniel often suspected to be a grandson of William and a son of Daniel, b. 1633,Virginia, would have been a better choice. We did not find material on Daniel Payne, b.Virginia1633, to tie into Daniel, b.Virginia, circa 1660, until several of the narratives had been written. Such being so and rather than go back and change the numerical order, Daniel Payne/Paine, b.c.1660, in Northampton County, Virginia, is assigned number (1). Through additional research and good fortune, some factual evidence may surface which will enable us to prove our immigrant paternal Payne ancestor. The use of “paternal” Payne ancestor is necessary as we do have an immigrant maternal Payne ancestor.
During the 1870's - 1880's, Dr. Horace Marshfield Paine conducted extensive research, which resulted in the publication of the book, "The Southold Branch of the Paine Family". Some 40 years later, in the 1920's, his son, Dr. Nathaniel Emmons Paine, updated his father's book with his own, "Thomas Payne ofSalemand his Descendants". This book, published in 1928, is important to us, not only for the historical background it contains, such as the origin of the name, dates and places, but Thomas Payne ofSalem,Mass., by way ofWrentham,England, was also our grandfather through maternal lines. Thus it is necessary to specify either "paternal" or "maternal", when referring to our Payne ancestors. Our maternal Payne ancestor, Thomas Payne, is covered in Chapter VI, “Francis Marion Payne ofIndianaandIllinois.
Much of the historical material that follows came, in some measure, from the sources identified in the preceding paragraphs. In determining the origin of the name, the following provides an insight derived from some of the best information available. While there are many, many families of Payne, Paine, Payn, Payen, etc., all forms must go back nine or ten centuries to the Latin word "paganus", meaning "a country man, or one who lived in the country", as opposed to living in a town or village. Thus the name, Paganus, was quite common and was adopted as a surname by many people of no blood relation what so ever, at the time that it became customary to use surnames. The Latin word, paganus, of three syllables was shortened by constant use into the two syllable word "pagan" or "payen", and later into the one syllable Payne and Paine. While there are documents of record in England, that mention the "son of Payne and daughter of Payne", in times anterior to the adoption of family names and before the Conquest in 1066, the name is considered to be mainly, if not wholly of Norman descent.
Study of the source or origin of races will disclose that theNormansdescended from the Teutons, one of the many branches of the Aryan family. The Teutons, probably due to the pressure of over population, pushed northward into what are nowDenmark,NorwayandSweden. Many centuries of living in this isolated and in many ways, harsh environment, served to engender distinct traits in the inhabitants. With the passing of time and as their population increased, the people, who, by this time were called "Scanzias", hence Scandinavian, resumed their wanderings. While some called these people "scourges", it is most probable that reference of scourges was made to those Northmen who made their living by raiding and looting the coastal settlements ofEngland,Franceand elsewhere. These new incursions by the Scanzias, extending into the lower reaches ofEurope, took place over several centuries. At various periods of their adventures, they were known as Goths, Vandals, Kelts, etc. However, the name that evolved for these people in the early middle ages was that of Northmen or Norsmen.
In the great migration of Scandinavians from their northern home of thin soil and long, cold winters, into the more fertile and temperate areas of the continent, every part ofWestern Europewas affected. In the year 885 AD, great numbers of North men voyaged up theSeineRiverto the gates ofParis. They were strongly resisted and retired to the mouth of the riverSeinewhere they established a settlement. Today, the city ofRouenmarks the site of that settlement. Their community rapidly grew in size and influence, particularly as it was the recipient of a steady stream of new arrivals fromScandinavia. With the ever increasing numbers, their settlement pushed out further and further into the country side and soon, under their leader Rolf, or Rollo, as he was later and now commonly identified, gained sovereignty over a considerable area in the north of France. In fact, Rollo's influence became such that Charles the Simple, brother and successor of Odo, King of the West Franks, who repulsed Rollo and his followers in 885, atParis, thought it prudent to come to terms with Rollo. Thus it came to pass, in c.913 that the King of France granted to Rollo and his people, confirmation and title for a large tract of land in northernFrance. It should be noted that many of the incursions of the Norsemen into western and southernEuropewere peaceful and the invaders blended into the population, eventually, in many cases, overwhelming by sheer numbers, the original inhabitants.
Soon after Rollo received title to the land, he became a convert to the Christian religion, was baptized and learned the French language. His example was soon followed by members of his Court and by the people living in the villages. By this time the common term for these invaders was "Normans" and their newly recognized land was calledNormandy, as it is known to the present time. Over the next century and a half,Normandybecame the pre-eminent power inWestern Europe. Through alliances and marriage with members of families of other Heads of States, theNormanscould lay claims to the thrones of other nations. Thus it was, after the death of his father Duke Robert, William succeeded to the Dukedom of Normandy. In the year 1056, William crossed "le Manche", orEnglish Channel, with his army to claim his right to the Crown of England. After defeating the English forces at the Battle of Hastings, he became universally recognized as King of England under the familiar title of "William the Conqueror".
The particular interest to us, in the foregoing capsule of history, is that all families of Payne, Paine, Payen, or however the name is spelled, are of Norman extraction. We earlier touched on the word "paganus" and how it evolved into the one syllable Payne, etc. It was mentioned, also, that while Rollo and many of the people in the villages converted to Christianity, many or most of the country people continued with their old beliefs and thus, were referred to as pagans. In due course, the country people and others embraced Christianity, but a large number of them retained the paganus root in their name, in one form or another, when it became the custom to use surnames. Thus today we find the surnames of Pagen, Pagan, Payen, Paien, Payne, Paine, Pain, Pane, Payson, Pyson and Pynson. InFrance, one can also find several of the above names and in Italy Paganini, Paynini, Paynelli, Pagni and Pagani are added to the list, all related to the Norman invasions intoFrance,EnglandandItaly. In the Domesday Book, compiled in 1086, the name, as used, was commonly Pagen or Paganus, but also among the Conqueror’s Tenants-in-Chief were Ralph Paganel and Roger fil Pagani, as well as a major landholder by the name of Payne. By the close of the Norman Dynasty, the name had become most common with entries such as Robert fil Pain, Payen le Dubboir, Fitz-Payn, John Paynett, Emmay Paynot and others, all of which led to the surnames as we now know them. From the foregoing, it is evident that people now bearing the surname of Payne, Paine, etc., could not have one common ancestor, but most likely have a common Norman descent.
While every one of the forty counties ofEnglandwas represented in the great Puritan exodus toNew Englandand the Adventurers seeking land and fortune inVirginiaand elsewhere in the new American Colonies, perhaps the greater number came from the shires ofLincoln,Norfolk,SuffolkandDevon. The Payne of Domesday had land holdings in contiguous counties from County Sussex, on the English Channel, north through County Norfolk, to the Wash, thence northwest through County Cheshire, to the Irish Sea. His lands continued back from theIrish Sea, south through the counties ofWorcesterandGloucester, to theBristol Channeland then southeast through Wiltshire and Hampshire, to return to his land inCountySussex. These contiguous holdings were necessary, as permission was needed to enter adjoining jurisdictions, unless you were a landowner in that area.
From Dr. H.D. Paine's book, "the Paine Family Records”, it seems that in Norfolk and Suffolk, Paynes' claimed the largest number of their holdings and thus the greatest concentration of people with our surname could be found in those counties. At least we know that our maternal Payne ancestor emigrated fromCountyNorfolk. More information can be found in the writings of Professor T.O. Paine, concerning the Payne of Domesday and his son, Edward. Professor Paine, from whose writings extracts were made and used in Dr. H.D. Paine's book, completely researched the Domesday Book, in the original Latin and he presents a very concise and complete chronicle of Paynes' holdings at the time of the writing of the book in 1086. The Domesday survey gave William the Conqueror a very good picture of who owned land; where the land was located; how much was in crops and in forest; how many serfs were employed; number of livestock owned; in short, a very good appraisal of the wealth and capabilities of his Kingdom. A very shrewd ruler, indeed! However, for us, the birth place of our paternal Payne ancestor may forever remain a mystery, unless, by some good fortune, we can determine with certainty, the grandfather of Daniel Payne, born on the Eastern Shore of Virginia,NorthamptonCounty, c.1660, in an area known as Accomacke.
A Coat-of-Arms has never enjoyed as much importance in Americaas was the case in Europe. In modern times they have, for the most part, been relegated to the status of interesting and historical relics, however, there are tangible benefits in being able to identify with a particular Family Coat-of-Arms. A coat-of-arms does provide considerable insight into the character, qualifications and honors of the possessor. In addition and perhaps of most importance in genealogy, is the evidence provided in enabling the identity of family lineage. The Ipswichbranch of the Paine/Payne family claims descent from the Knight, Hugh de Payen, based on later family crests. This Hugh, it was believed, was a younger son of Payne of the Domesday Chronicles, Edmund being the eldest son and heir. Hugh de Payen distinguished himself in the first Crusade, in the service of Duke Robert, brother of William the Conqueror. After the conquest of Jerusalem and securing access to it's sacred shrines, Hugh, along with Godfrey de St. Omer, another Knight, founded the Society, "The Templars of the Cross", or Knights Templar. The mission of that organization, which became very large and powerful, was to further the objects of the Crusades by protecting the holy places and providing safe havens for all pilgrims on their journeys to the shrines. Hugh de Payen's shield is a rather familiar one, with its wolf's head crest and three martlets. The following generations of a family that had been granted and used a coat-of-arms could trace their lineage through similarities in the crests. It is thus that the Ipswich Branch of Paine’s claim descent from Hugh de Payen. In Fairbairn's "Crests of Great Britain and Ireland", twenty-six crests are credited to the Family of Payne. In our case, we cannot lay claim to a specific crest, as we do not know for sure the name of our first paternal Payne immigrant and thus cannot identify, or even search for, our Payne family in England. However, in the event that we can at some time prove a crest or Blazon of Arms, I hope that it is the one that carries my favorite motto: Malo mori quam foedari - “Death rather than dishonor.”
Researching the records, trying to learn more of our origins and ancestors has proved to be a long and difficult task, but interesting and inspiring in every way. Perhaps a quote from a noted author and philosopher states it best; “To learn and from time to time to apply what one has learned ---- isn’t that a pleasure”? [Confucius, c.500 B.C.] That rather sensible observation still applies after the passing of some 2500 years and many important items have turned up in researching this effort, including; our connection to Charlemagne, through the Bruen and Mapes lines; the number of our ancestors that fought in the American Revolution; the diverse religious background of many of them and the discovery that we have strong French and German strains in our ancestry, although the British, including Scottish, and Welsh lines, are dominant. One can sense that our family has played a role in the establishment, settlement and development of our country. Our ancestors were among the Puritans in New England, the Cavaliers in Virginia, and the Quakers in Pennsylvania - and all helped to push the frontier ever westward although unfortunately at the expense of the Native Americans. In passing, it is well to mention one other source from whence came our early settlers; those who were sent here for reasons not of their own choosing. There are many good publications available wherein the names are listed of those who arrived onAmerica’s shores as slave labor. These were not the African slaves, but rather the political dissidents; prisoners of war, which included many fromScotland; evil doers of all sorts of crimes, orphans and hundreds that were simply forced into the highly lucrative slave trade. It is stated that by 1675 some 50,000 people had been sent to the Colonies. While many escaped and many died, surely they left a great many descendants. By 1700, the practice had been mostly eliminated as the Colonies passed laws to prevent accepting known felons. As a matter of course I have examined these records and have found no Payne or collateral ancestor emanating from that source. For more information, please see Passenger and Immigration List Index-1500’s-1900’s, data base on line, updated annually, on Ancestry.com.
As one would expect, we uncovered several mysteries, including one from the very beginning: Who was our emigrant Payne ancestor? That matter is discussed in Volume I, Chapter I, covering Daniel Payne of Accomacke, but no resolution will be found. In fact, Daniel I, long considered to be our first confirmed paternal ancestor, is surrounded with a few mysteries in his own right. We know nothing of his childhood; his early training; or how many times he married, if he did marry more than once, and how he became involved with the Scarboroughs and his marriage to Hannah Scarborough? What happened to his plantation and to his name sake and second son, Daniel Payne, as well as a host of other questions; the answers to which may never be known.
Each generation presents mysteries of one sort or another. Why and how did John (2) end up in Maryland, although not very far from his birthplace in Northampton County, VA. Where and when did g.m.Hannah Scarborough Payne die? Did she remove to Worcester County, MDto be near her father, Matthew Scarborough? Our inability to find our emigrant Payne ancestor is not so much a mystery as just a plain lack of records. A real mystery is presented in the case of the family of Moses Payne, son of John 16, or so we long thought. John 16 (Chapter IV) took his family from the Eastern Shore of Maryland to Kentucky, remained there for eight years or so and then moved across the Ohio Riverto settle in Jefferson Co., Indiana. There his first wife passed away, leaving him with four young children. He married again and with his second wife, raised a large family. Uncle Moses, a product of g.f.John’s first marriage, grew to manhood and married in Indiana. He had a family of some eleven children, all of whom were accounted for in the 1840 and 1850 census’ and then the entire family disappeared from the records. One can understand such a happenstance occurring in earlier times, such as the 14th or 15th centuries, but not in the mid 1800’s. In fact, it did not , as explained later in the text.
As we proceed through the various generations, light will be shed on questions that may have been entertained by members of our family, at least to an extent. Of considerable interest are the accounts of the various collateral ancestors and while I would much prefer to be able to find and research our direct Payne ancestors in England than to lay claim to be a first cousin 26 times removed of Queen Elizabeth of Great Britain, finding that link will not happen at least in these pages. Having stated that, it is necessary to list the ancestors in our line leading to Charlemagne, as it provides proof of such lineage, but limited effort has been given to research collateral grandparents off of the line shown. There simply would be more grandparents than any one may need, even though it would be a most interesting undertaking. Time to do the research is really the restraining factor, but most certainly possible as those ancestors would be, for the most part, members of the ruling class and thus in the records. The good Monk’s and Abbott’s kept fairly good records of the prominent citizens and governing bodies down through the centuries, thus much has been written about and records preserved concerning those people and their institutions.
While we can preserve and present material in a variety of ways, such as on CD’s or an iPOD, perhaps the preferred way to make material available, which one has written, is in book form. The various accounts for all of the Payne and collateral ancestors presented in these pages constitute a rather formidable amount of information. With that in mind and for other reasons, it has been decided to print the material in two volumes. This will serve to hold down the cost for those who may be interested in the documents for information concerning ancient collateral ancestors covered in the book. The collateral ancestors except for those ancestors found in the Isom/Mitchell portion of Volume II, are found in Volume I of “Daniel Payne and Some of His Descendants.” Thus in Volume I we find: Chapter I; Daniel (1) Payne of Accomacke. Chapter II; John (2) Payne. Chapter III; Jacob (9) Payne. Chapter IV; John (16) Payne of Maryland and Indiana. Chapter V; John (22) Payne and Chapter’s VI, VII and VIII; Francis Marion (29) Payne of Indiana andIllinois. In Volume II we have: Chapter I: The Isom’s and collateral families. Chapter II: The Mitchell’s and collateral families and Chapter III: The Family of Clyde and Belva Payne. A look at page iv, above, entitled “Clyde and Belva Mitchell Payne And a Few of Their Ancestors” will provide a measure of the scope of collateral ancestors covered, at least to some degree.